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List of Resources – Student Equity & Success in light of COVID-19

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Webinars & Discussions:

What Higher Ed leaders & Advocates Should Read:

Emergency Aid & Grants

  • Michelson Spark Grants – With the COVID-19 crisis severely impacting the educational space, the Michelson 20MM Foundation is launching a new round of the Spark Grant program to fund work that supports students and faculty. They will accept proposals via their updated RFP until 11:59 pm PST on April 27th or until funds have expired. Apply here.

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Expanded broadband resources for the Latino community

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Access to broadband impacts the wellbeing of the Latino community, our economic mobility, and our resilience during a global health crisis.

As our lives continue to be disrupted, vital services including unemployment benefits, distance learning options, access to critical telehealth options, and monetary relief as a part of the Congress’ recently approved stimulus package have all moved online and accessing its benefits are dependent on a family’s ability to connect to the internet.

Despite the significant challenges faced by low resourced front line communities, HTTP also believes that this is an important opportunity to work collaboratively with internet service providers to ensure that the Latino community isn’t left behind by facilitating information sharing on free and low cost at home broadband connection options.

The Covid19 global crisis has created a unique opportunity for low income families to subscribe to at home broadband for little or no costs thanks to the leadership of the country’s largest internet service providers offering unprecedented connection opportunities for those most vulnerable during this time of crisis.

Verizon

  • Offering new affordable internet plans for low-income households. Qualified customers can purchase Fios 200/200Mbps home internet service for just $19.99/month with a free year of Disney+ and no router rental charges for two months.

  • Waiving wireless data overage charges to support customers who may be financially affected by the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Offering unlimited domestic calling to wireless customers on limited-minute plans through April 30.

  • Verizon to give customers learning tools and premium TV at no additional cost

  • Students get free access for 60 days to valuable learning and interactive study tools

  • Verizon will donate $2.5 million to Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), a national nonprofit that has invested $20 billion to fuel economic opportunity for people and communities across America.

AT&T

  • Unlimited AT&T Home Internet – All AT&T consumer home internet wireline customers, as well as Fixed Wireless Internet, can use unlimited internet data. Additionally, we’ll continue to offer internet access for qualifying limited income households at $10 a month through our Access from AT&T program. We’ve expanded eligibility to Access from AT&T to households participating in the National School Lunch Program and Head Start. Additionally, we’re offering new Access from AT&T customers two months of free service.

  • Distance Learning – AT&T is underwriting expenses for a “one-stop” resource center to support eLearning Days from the State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) available to all educators in schools to help them handle school closures and the increase in virtual learning due to COVID-19. Along with newly established $10M Distance Learning & Family Connections Fund.

  • Serving Those who Serve – AT&T is redirecting more resources to provide communication services and tools for first responders, health care professionals, educators and other essential customers. This additional support will help ensure these customers can continue providing critical support to the country and their communities, particularly to first responders using the FirstNet network.

  • Temporary Pay Increase for Front Line Employees: 20% bonus above the regular hourly base rate of pay to bargained-for frontline employees for all time worked in the office or at home. That bonus will be included in their regular rate of pay for purposes of calculating overtime rates. CWA recognized AT&T’s efforts as a model for other corporations to follow.

Comcast/NBCUniversal/Telemundo

  • Xfinity WiFi Free For Everyone: Xfinity WiFi hotspots across the country will be available to anyone who needs them for free – including non-Xfinity Internet subscribers. For a map of Xfinity WiFi hotspots, visit www.xfinity.com/wifi. Once at a hotspot, consumers should select the “xfinitywifi” network name in the list of available hotspots, and then launch a browser.

  • Pausing Our Data Plan: With so many people working and educating from home, we want our customers to access the internet without thinking about data plans.  While the vast majority of our customers do not come close to using 1TB of data in a month, we are pausing our data plans for 60 days giving all customers Unlimited data for no additional charge.

  • No Disconnects or Late Fees: We will not disconnect a customer’s internet service or assess late fees if they contact us and let us know that they can’t pay their bills during this period. Our care teams will be available to offer flexible payment options and can help find other solutions.

  • Internet Essentials Free to New Customers: As announced yesterday, it’s even easier for low-income families who live in a Comcast service area to sign-up for Internet Essentials, the nation’s largest and most comprehensive broadband adoption program. New customers will receive 60 days of complimentary Internet Essentials service, which is normally available to all qualified low-income households for $9.95/month. Additionally, for all new and existing Internet Essentials customers, the speed of the program’s Internet service was increased to 25 Mbps downstream and 3 Mbps upstream. That increase will go into effect for no additional fee and it will become the new base speed for the program going forward.

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Small Business Resources/Nonprofit Resources

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https://www.cnmsocal.org/covid19

Recording of Making Sense of Emerging Financing options for Nonprofits

https://zoom.us/rec/play/uJN7I-uprmk3GdOctASDAqcqW420La6s1SAX_vtexRnnU3YLZFSmMLAVY-a8596YX8Ty1Jt38VBrhhL-?continueMode=true&_x_zm_rtaid=1C9x7OtTR12-IRk2EpZvWQ.1586213180742.57472d62eb46444ee48e006148f58aff&_x_zm_rhtaid=500

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dC9d-SgTgcE&t=158s

Congressman Lou Correa hosted a virtual Small Business Town Hall with experts from the U.S. Small Business Administration, House Small Business Committee and the Orange County Small Business Development Center.

https://www.sba.gov/page/disaster-loan-applications

Disaster Loan Applications

Find out how to apply for SBA Disaster loans

Content

Economic Injury Disaster Loans and Loan Advance

  • To apply for a COVID-19 Economic Injury Disaster Loan, click here.

In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, small business owners in all U.S. states, Washington D.C., and territories are eligible to apply for an Economic Injury Disaster Loan advance of up to $10,000. The SBA’s Economic Injury Disaster Loan program provides small businesses with working capital loans of up to $2 million that can provide vital economic support to small businesses to help overcome the temporary loss of revenue they are experiencing.

A piece of content by paydayloansnow, The loan advance will provide economic relief to businesses that are currently experiencing a temporary loss of revenue. This loan advance will not have to be repaid.

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COVID19 Resources/Recursos para COVID19

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Resources for both Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay area: https://about.1degree.org/covid-19-en

Resources for Undocumented people/Recursos para COVID19 Personas Indocumentadas: COVID-19 Resources Guide for Undocumented Californians.  https://ciyja.org/covid19/

National Day Laborer Organizing Network

Grantmakers Concerned with Refugees and Immigrants – A continuously updated resource with a focus on how it is impacting immigrants and how philanthropy is addressing that impact burniva.

United States Citizenship & Immigration Services – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has suspended routine in-person services until at least April 1 to help slow the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019

Immigrants Rising: Tangible support for Undocumented Communities during COVID19:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1PxLuuH0-hwHXftUXuEi52Q1qWUDegN8_I1L4ulIFwzk/edit

https://coronavirusnetwork.org/resources/

https://legalaidatwork.org/factsheet/undocumented-workers-employment-rights/

Information for Small Businesses: https://www.sba.gov/disaster-assistance/coronavirus-covid-19

https://www.cnmsocal.org/covid19

In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, small business owners in all U.S. states, Washington D.C., and territories are eligible to apply for an Economic Injury Disaster Loan advance of up to $10,000. The SBA’s Economic Injury Disaster Loan program provides small businesses with working capital loans of up to $2 million that can provide vital economic support to small businesses to help overcome the temporary loss of revenue they are experiencing.

The loan advance will provide economic relief to businesses that are currently experiencing a temporary loss of revenue. This loan advance will not have to be repaid at skriver i den officiella xn--ln-pengar-52a.se/ bloggen.

California: http://opr.ca.gov/covid-19/

https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CID/DCDC/Pages/Immunization/ncov2019.aspx

Santa Clara County

Food Support

Free meals for Santa Clara County students 

  • Santa Clara County School Districts

  • Refer to meal sites document for more information on hours, dates, and instructions for each site

  • Visit School Closure Meal Sites 2020 to locate a site near you

  • More info:

    Get free food from a food pantry

  • Second Harvest of Silicon Valley

  • Free food distribution to individuals and families in need in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties.

  • Call the Food Connection Hotline at 1-800-984-3663, text “GETFOOD” to 408-455-5181, or email getfood@shfb.org to find out where the nearest grocery distribution is.

  • Food Connection Hotline #: 1-800-984-3663; email: getfood@shfb.org.

  • More info: Our Response to COVID-19

Low-Cost Nutritious Meals for Curbside Pickup or Delivery

  • Santa Clara Senior Center

  • The Santa Clara Senior Center is closed until further notice due to COVID-19 except for curbside pickup during the week and homebound delivery on the weekend.

  • Please call to reserve a meal by noon for next day pickup and call by 5pm on Wednesday for weekend breakfast and lunch. The suggested donation for people 60+ is $3 and for people younger than 60, the suggested donation is $8.

  • Phone: 408-615-3170, curbside pickup between 11am-12pm Monday through Friday at 1303 Fremont Street.

  • More info: Santa Clara Senior Center

Free and Low-Cost Meals for Seniors 60+

Free Food Pantry for Seniors & Homeless Individuals

  • St. Justin’s Community Ministry

  • St. Justin’s Community Ministry provides free food and clothing to seniors and the homeless in Santa Clara cCounty.

  • Go to St. Justin’s Community Ministry during the food pantry hours at your convenience.

  • 2655 Homestead Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051, Monday-Friday 10am-12pm. Phone: 408-243-1462

  • More info: Community Ministry

Financial Support

Santa Clara County COVID-19 Financial Solidarity

  • Archive408

  • This is a mutual aid project that allows individuals to give and request financial assistance in a transparent and public forum. Any questions or troubles with the form email submissions@archive408.com.

  • Submit a request for financial assistance here: Santa Clara County COVID-19 Financial Solidarity

  • More info

    Call an advice line for help with worker’s pay

  • County of Santa Clara

  • Workers can get help to receive a portion of their wages due to COVID-19 impacting their work

  • Call the Office of Labor Standards Enforcement (OLSE) advice line: 1(866) 870-7725

  • More info

Childcare Support

Child Care Resources During COVID-19

Employment/Unemployment Support

Find and Apply to Workers’ Pay Programs for Lost Wages due to COVID-19 

  • County of Santa Clara Office of Labor Standards Enforcement

  • The County of Santa Office of Labor Standards Enforcement and The Fair Workplace Collaborative want to help employees see which program can cover a portion of their lost wages due to COVID-19.

  • Call the California Employee Development Department 1(800) 300-5616 to apply to the suitable program(s) you’re eligible for.

  • Phone: 1(800) 300-5616 for English 1(800) 326-8937

  • More info: Home – Labor Standards Enforcement

Employment Opportunities Still Available During COVID-19 

General Health Support

Free COVID-19 Testing Program

  • Verily

  • Complete an online screener to see if you are eligible for free COVID-19 testing  (must be: 18 or older, located in one of the counties where testing is available, and willing to sign COVID-19 Public Health authorization form and lab consent)

  • Available in: Santa Clara, San Mateo, Riverside, and Sacramento county

  • E-mail: contact@projectbaseline.com

  • More info: COVID-19

Homeless Support

Temporary Shelter Assistance for Homeless Individuals

  • HomeFirst

  • HomeFirst is working with the city of San Jose and the county of Santa Clara to slow the spread of COVID-19 and mitigate the impact COVID-19 could have on homeless individuals and families.

  • Call 408-510-7600 or email outreach@homefirstscc.org if you or someone you know needs temporary shelter during the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Phone: 408-510-7600. Email: outreach@homefirstscc.org

  • More info: https://www.homefirstscc.org/

Housing/Eviction Prevention Support

Help with Housing Advice and Disputes

  • Project Sentinel

  • Project Sentinel is a non-profit agency that provides information and dispute resolution services to tenants, landlords, and roommates. Project Sentinel answers questions and helps resolve disputes involving deposits, rent increases, nonpayment of rent, and other rental housing issues.

  • Call 408-720-9888 between 9am-12pm and 1pm-4pm for assistance. No walk-ins.

  • Hours: 9am-12pm and 1-4pm Monday-Friday. Phone: 408-720-9888

  • More info: Project Sentinel

Mental Health Support

Emotional Support During COVID-19

  • NAMI Santa Clara County

  • Warmline staff at NAMI Santa Clara County are available to support you during the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Call 408-453-0400 option 1 or email info@namisantaclara.org for emotional support when you feel you need it during their available hours.

  • Phone: 408-453-0400 option 1. Email: info@namisantaclara.org. Schedule: Monday-Friday 10am-6pm.

Free Virtual Recovery Groups

  • NAMI Santa Clara County

  • NAMI Santa Clara County will still be holding remote, virtual meetings for people in recovery during the COVID-19 crisis while their facility is closed.

  • Call 408-453-0400 extension 6050 to join the support group.

  • Schedule: Sundays 3pm-4:30pm and Mondays 7pm-8:30pm.

  • More info:  https://namisantaclara.org/

List of Various Online Mental Health Resources 

  • NAMI Santa Clara County

  • NAMI Santa Clara County is closed due to COVID-19 until further notice so they compiled an extensive list of mental health resources residents of Santa Clara County can access when they feel they need additional support.

  • Look over the list provided below and follow the instructions depending on your specific need and availability of the program(s).

  • COVID-19 SUPPORT SERVICES

  • More info: https://namisantaclara.org/

Other Support

Request assistance following the COVID-19 outbreak 

  • South Bay Mutual Aid

  • If you are in need of assistance following the COVID-19 outbreak please fill out a survey. The information you provide will be shared with volunteers so they may contact you if they are able to help. To maintain privacy, your name is not required to accept aid. Only minimal information regarding health conditions is asked so we can keep our volunteers safe and prepared.

  • Complete the survey: South Bay Mutual Aid Intake

  • More info 

Los Angeles Resource List: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1S-WJaMa4q3yNrEBfSFKEdSQArcNc_MTI2LiUA63Ycyg/mobilebasic

En Español: COVID-19 Recursos Para La Comunidad de Los Ángeles: https://docs.google.com/document/d/12NWE0uKtoEDUQRJtPeSlJ5VMexVLoHBRuLPKxMLKgKI/edit?ts=5e702189

La Mayor’s office Of Immigrant Affairs: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Wj7LZL1-nwZKkNfKtyeeZsnqUTq56KDhbRXCj9zD334/edit?fbclid=IwAR0UKhEjKij-JlF9eDdRZPqXup-OE5_nAIxr-ErFiC1mTL009YqLwW7mShE

LA Forward Response guide: https://gdoc.pub/doc/e/2PACX-1vSyHG-y6J9quZ7SHl4x5v55c9ZFXTyVUTbTuAWoJosRTTja0mvnTEUor8f77FqFgoVYb835Oah1TbdC?emci=108051a7-ee6a-ea11-a94c-00155d03b5dd&emdi=8d4344d1-ab6b-ea11-a94c-00155d03b5dd&ceid=3396682

Central Coast Coalition for Undocumented Student

Success: https://bit.ly/38TO3mX
www.ccc.uss.org

Central Valley: CRLAF and the Sacramento FUEL Network for Immigrants have prepared an informational flyer (attached) to support immigrant communities in the Central Valley as families navigate the immense uncertainty caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Topics covered include legal, healthcare, employment, housing, food assistance, census, and other areas of concern, specifically as they relate to immigrants or immigration status.

In anticipation of the need for constant updates to the flyer, the most recent electronic version of the document (with clickable links) can be downloaded at https://crlaf.org/coronavirus

Defer payments on federally-held student loans

  • US Department of Education

  • Borrowers of federally-held student loans have the option to defer loan payments with no penalty for 60 days starting on March 13, 2020.

  • Call your loan servicer and ask for an administrative forbearance. If you’re not sure who your servicer is or how to contact them, visit the link or call 1-800-433-3243 for assistance.

  • Federal Student Aid Information Center phone #: 1-800-433-3243; TTY: 1-800-730-8913

  • More info: Coronavirus and Forbearance Info for Students, Borrowers, and Parents

Get mortgage assistance for U.S. Bank mortgage customers

  • U.S. Bank

  • U.S. Bank is offering its mortgage customers assistance programs that may allow you to suspend your mortgage payments for 90 days, during which time you won’t be charged any late fees and your accounts will not be reported as delinquent.

  • Call (888) 287-7817 and press option #2 to request assistance.

  • Phone #: (888) 287-7817.

  • More info: Mortgage Help and Repayment Options

Apply for loan for small to mid-sized arts organizations 

Request fee waivers and payment deferrals for Bank of America customers

  • Bank of America

  • Bank of America is offering additional support to its customers impacted by COVID-19 on a case-by-case basis. Support may include payment deferrals for credit cards, mortgages, and small business and auto loans and refunds on overdraft, non-sufficient funds, monthly maintenance, and late fees.

  • Visit the link to request a deferral on credit card or mortgage payments or call 800-432-1000 for more information.

  • Phone #: 800-432-1000.

  • More info: Bank of America press release

Request payment deferrals for PNC customers

  • PNC Bank

  • PNC is offering additional support to its customers impacted by COVID-19, which may include payment deferrals of up to 90 days for auto loans, unsecured installment loans or unsecured lines of credit, credit cards, mortgages, and home equity loans or home equity lines of credit.

  • Visit the link and complete and submit the online form to request a payment deferral.

  • Phone #: 1-800-558-8472 (credit card); 1-800-523-8654 (mortgage); 1-888-762-2265 (auto loan, home equity loan or line of credit, and personal loan or line of credit).

  • More info: Important Updates for Our Customers About Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Request fee waivers and payment deferrals for Wells Fargo customers

  • Wells Fargo

  • Wells Fargo is offering additional support to its customers impacted by COVID-19, such as fee waivers and payment deferrals, including 90-day payment deferrals for mortgages.

  • Visit the link to sign into your online banking account and email Wells Fargo through the Message Center to request support.

  • Phone #: 1-800-869-3557; TDD/TTY: 1-800-877-4833.

  • More info: Wells Fargo press release and Coronavirus (COVID-19) Information Center

Apply for cash assistance for DoorDash drivers

  • DoorDash

  • Up to two weeks of financial assistance for DoorDash drivers who have tested positive for COVID-19, are under mandatory or doctor-recommended COVID-19-related quarantine, or live in a house with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19 or is under COVID-19-related quarantine. Click here for eligibility.

  • Visit the link and follow the instructions under the “How do I submit a claim?” heading to apply for assistance.

  • More info: COVID-19 Financial Assistance Program

Mental Health Resources-For Children and Social Distancing:

https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Talking-With-Children-Tips-for-Caregivers-Parents-and-Teachers-During-Infectious-Disease-Outbreaks/PEP20-01-01-006

https://store.samhsa.gov/system/files/sma14-4886spanish.pdf

https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Taking-Care-of-Your-Behavioral-Health-Tips-for-Social-Distancing-Quarantine-and-Isolation-During-an-Infectious-Disease-Outbreak-Spanish-Version-/SMA14-4894SPANISH

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/18p9OSlLpSYanIoUC-gEbhVbRMYVUfw4wyrixa9ekGdc/htmlview?usp=embed_facebook&fbclid=IwAR3fKKa_ENBpkUoCfMmW8r1D0s06B_IFS_oAwQH8BEBV6nlzqOgv3w28DTc&sle=true

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CSU Impaction, and Equity for California’s Latino Students

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by Daniel Estrada, PhD

A troubling college enrollment policy for California’s Latino students is the continuing expansion of impaction, that has been implemented in almost all of the California State University System’s (CSU) 23 campuses. Impaction in the CSU is the process of limiting enrollment for first time freshmen students and/or college transfers into one or several CSU campuses. Impaction is inconsistent with the mission of the CSU as described by the California Master Plan for Higher Education. According to this plan the CSU mission is to continue to accept all first time freshmen in the upper third of the state’s high school graduates and all upper division transfers, who earn a 2.0 GPA in at least 56 transferable semester units.

However, according to the current CSU enrollment policy, it is noted: “with the exception of certain high demand majors, programs and campuses, nearly all students, who meet CSU admission requirements are admitted to their first choice campus or major.” California’s promise, to qualified students, for admission to a public university for a four year degree is fading away. At this time only five out of 23 CSU campuses are not impacted by either first time freshmen or college student transfer enrollments. CSU, Humbolt and CSU, Monterey Bay are impacted for first time freshmen enrollment but not college transfer enrollments. The California LULAC organization is reviewing this problem and requesting meetings with the CSU Chancellor and several CSU campus presidents.

CSU Impaction has been expanding for almost two decades. The driving forces behind this process are a growing and young Latino population and California’s divestment in education. CSU impaction is expanding at a time when CSU leadership is promising steps to close the gap in educational equity among students of color and different socio-economic backgrounds. In addition, demographic studies indicate California’s Latino population is and will continue to be much younger than other groups. The growth in the state’s workforce will increasingly become Latino as well.

Unless the state increases its investment in higher education and promotes greater equity for Latino college students, the growing under-educated Latino workforce will be heavily burdened with supporting entitlements to an ever growing retired population. Some of these entitlements include: Social Security, Medical, Medicare, and government pensions.

The Campaign for College Opportunity has noted the following information on California’s Latino population. Currently, Latinos are 38% of California’s population. However, this group is also 51% of the school age (K thru 12) population. At the same time, the percentage of Latinos who complete their college degrees is only 16% compared to 38% for all of California’s population. An under-educated Latino workforce will be challenged with supporting entitlement programs for the retired while stuck in lower paying blue collar jobs.

Many of the California State University campuses, particularly in Southern California, are Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI). According to Title V of the 1965 US Higher Education Act, a Hispanic Serving Institution, a college or university, must have a Latino student full time enrollment of 25% or more. Among the larger CSU campuses, that are HSI in Southern California, are: CSU, Los Angeles, CSU Long Beach, CSU, Fullerton, and CSU, Northridge. Among the smaller CSU campuses in Southern California, that are HSI include: CSU, Dominguez Hills, CSU, San Bernardino, CSU San Marcos, and CSU Bakersfield.

CSU, Fullerton as of 2013 had the largest student enrollment in the CSU system at 37,677 full time students. This campus also had the largest enrollment of Mexican American full time students at 10, 479. If other Latino students are included, CSU Fullerton’s total Latino full time student enrollment was: 13,488. CSU, Los Angeles was second in Mexican American student full time enrollment at 9,774. However, while CSU, Northridge had 9,374 Mexican American full time students enrolled in 2013, it also had a total of 5,159 other Latino full time students enrolled for a total of 14,533 in 2013. This is the largest Latino full time student enrollment in the system.

Although increasing graduation rates may allow more students to enroll in their preferred campus, using impaction to increase graduation rates may be problematic. An academic department, that is declared impacted, may modify criteria for students to be admitted as a major in their academic program. Impacted academic departments have increased Grade Point Average (GPA) requirements and SAT and ACT test scores also. In addition, an impacted department can add prerequisite classes for students interested in majoring in the subject matter of their program. Despite the fact that the California Master Plan for Higher Education promises that the top third of the state’s high school graduates may enter a CSU campus of their choice, impaction has changed admission requirements for many prospective students.

California policy makers are considering changing budget allocations to CSU campuses, which have traditionally been enrollment driven, to performance based criteria. If graduation rates are used as the main criteria for judging a school’s performance, then schools that have used impaction to drive away Latino and other students of color will be given more money for their campus. Whereas campuses that have sought out diversity will most likely be given less money. Equity criteria must be a part of the budgetary decisions of the state for the CSU as well as the UC system and community colleges.

Divestment, a driving force for CSU impaction, in California’s higher education system has been occurring for decades. However, between 2007 to 2015, the fluctuations in state support can be clearly seen. The Governor’s Budget Summary for 2015 to 2016 shows that the overall state CSU higher education allocation for 2007-08 was 3,264.3 million dollars. By 2011-12 this allocation was down to 2,418.1 million dollars although in the previous year (2010-2011) the higher education allocation spiked up to 3,009.2 million dollars. State spending on higher education has been slowly moving upward since 2012-2013. The CSU budget for 2015-2016 has moved up to 3,153.6 million dollars which is still under the allocation for 2007. Of course the economy has been sighted as the reason for these fluctuations in higher education spending.

While fluctuations in state higher education spending have occurred, the financing of the CSU system, like the UC system and Community Colleges, has continued to rely on student tuition and fees. In 2007-08 the total CSU revenues from student tuition and fees was: $1,046.6 million dollars. By 2011-12 CSU revenue from student tuition and fees was up to 1, 874.7 million dollars. Student tuition and fees have slowly decreased since the 2011-2012 levels to 1,669.9 million dollars in 2014-15 and is currently up to 1,707.1 million dollars in 2015-16.

State financial aid, like tuition, also increased from 2007 to 2015. In 2007-08 state financial aid dollars were at 129.7 million. In 2014-15, state financial aid increased to 636.4 million dollars and dropped down to 506.70 million dollars in 2015-16. Also the amount of other funds to the CSU has increased since 2007-08. Other funds include state lottery money, and federal funds. The CSU budget has increased since 2007. In 2007-08 the CSU budget was 4,780.7 million dollars. In 2015-16 the CSU budget rose to be 6,009.2 million dollars. This increase has occurred by increasing student tuition and fees, state financial aid and other funds such as lottery money, and federal funds. Meanwhile the state has continued to divest in higher education and the CSU specifically.

While the CSU Enrollment and Management Policy allows for campuses and academic departments to change their admission standards when challenged by student admissions, it also specifies alternatives. The alternatives to impaction may be one way to slow down this process while also allowing the equity gap to close further. Innovation in education may offer some solutions. However, ultimately California’s state policy makers will have to decide whether to invest in higher education while demanding more efficiency and positive outcomes with increased state spending.

An organization that has become an advocate for maintaining promises made by California’s Master Plan for Higher Education to the state’s high school and community college students, is the Campaign for College Opportunity. This group has attempted to make clear the consequences for California’s economy for failing to invest in higher education and failing to close the current equity gap. This group notes: “When one in two children under the age of 18 is Latino, California cannot meet its workforce demand for college educated workers without ensuring more Latinos earn college credentials.” This organization also adds: “The future of our economy and the state will rise or fall on the educational success of Latinos.”

With higher education access and achievement impacting the economic and political status of Latinos in throughout the state, the California LULAC has opted for an aggressive position on CSU impaction. Local LULAC chapters have been meeting with CSU campus presidents on the impaction issue. At the same time, the California LULAC has requested a meeting with CSU Chancellor White. Also, the California LULAC Latino Educational Attainment Committee is discussing the idea of requesting the state LULAC Executive Council to meet with state legislators to discuss CSU impaction and admission policies. California State President Dave Rodriguez said” we will explore all political and legal options to ensure access for students”.

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California LULAC Moves Forward on Single Member Districts State-wide: King City a Top Priority

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On November 08, 2014, the California State LULAC Board held its winter meeting in Santa Fe Springs, California, and received a presentation by the Mexican American Legal and Defense Fund (MALDEF) on single district elections and the impact on Latinos throughout California.

Subsequently, the State Board voted unanimously to continue strategic conversations with MALDEF in order to reach a Memorandum of Understanding between California State LULAC and MALDEF that would identify and prioritize cities and other local jurisdictions that are currently single district elections jurisdictions, that as such, are a detriment to minority and Latino communities, throughout California, in the area of fair and equitable representation by local elected officials.

King City Police Scandal
On Tuesday, February 25, 2014, the local and national news reported the uncovering of a police scandal that apparently targeted Latinos – especially the most vulnerable in the community, the poor, indigenous and undocumented farmworker.

About one-third of the King City Police Department were arrested, including the Police Chief and recently retired Police Chief. Sadly, for a few hours, the King City Police Department had a sign up reading “Closed”.

LULAC Support of King City
The following week, on Thursday, March 6, a press conference was held in front of City Hall in King City. Local, state and national LULAC representatives, with organizational support by national and state organizations such as MALDEF, NALEO, Southwest Voter Registration Education Project and the American G.I. Forum, and others, to support the local residents of King City and to provide advocacy support to create positive change in the community.

Among the various speakers at the press conference was Assembly Member Luis Alejo, representing 30th California Assembly District. Assembly Member Alejo called for:

Expediting a planned town hall meeting for King City residents about the arrests and their concerns over police.
Creating a local police oversight committee.
Possible state legislation to address 30-day impound practices and police-tow company conflicts of interest.
California Attorney General Kamala Harris to support Monterey County’s investigation.
Additionally, Assembly Member Alejo called for district elections to help residents achieve better representation in a city that’s close to 90 percent Latino.

Immediately, LULAC went into action by holding public and private meetings with victims of the scandal, that according to local residents, “had been going on for decades.” Close to 100 residents were interviewed from which a plethora of issues surfaced due to lack of services and not enough political representation – both through advocacy and through elected representation.

To date, the King City council now has 1 Latino Council Member; in 2014, during the height of the police scandal, there were 2 Latino Council Members.

Empowering King City
California State LULAC, California LULAC District 12 (central coast counties of Monterey, San Benito and Santa Cruz) will continue to support the newly formed King City LULAC Council No. 3257 and Council President Ana Vargas.

California State LULAC
With the continued leadership of California Assembly Member Luis Alejo (now, President of the Latino Legislative Caucus in Sacramento) the mission towards district elections by California LULAC is certainly on its way towards reversing the systemic deficiencies found in numerous communities, such as King City, throughout the state. Read more about monder law.

In light of the fact that the Latino community throughout California is the backbone of our state’s workforce – especially in the vast agricultural lands that generate billions of dollars, as is King City and Monterey County, the urgency to correct ineffective, single district elections, is a top priority to the newly elected State Board of California State LULAC.

“We have set a course to ensure that the Latino communities have representation of their choosing,” stated Dave Rodriguez, State Director of California State LULAC.

California State LULAC will keep you informed of this single district initiative, as well as other State LULAC initiatives unfold in California – for the good of the League and the community we serve.

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Rethinking Higher Education in California

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CSU Impaction, and Equity for California’s Latino Students
by Daniel Estrada, PhD

A troubling college enrollment policy for California’s Latino students is the continuing expansion of impaction, that has been implemented in almost all of the California State University System’s (CSU) 23 campuses. Impaction in the CSU is the process of limiting enrollment for first time freshmen students and/or college transfers into one or several CSU campuses. Impaction is inconsistent with the mission of the CSU as described by the California Master Plan for Higher Education. According to this plan the CSU mission is to continue to accept all first time freshmen in the upper third of the state’s high school graduates and all upper division transfers, who earn a 2.0 GPA in at least 56 transferable semester units.

However, according to the current CSU enrollment policy, it is noted: “with the exception of certain high demand majors, programs and campuses, nearly all students, who meet CSU admission requirements are admitted to their first choice campus or major.” California’s promise, to qualified students, for admission to a public university for a four year degree is fading away. At this time only five out of 23 CSU campuses are not impacted by either first time freshmen or college student transfer enrollments. CSU, Humbolt and CSU, Monterey Bay are impacted for first time freshmen enrollment but not college transfer enrollments. The California LULAC organization is reviewing this problem and requesting meetings with the CSU Chancellor and several CSU campus presidents.

CSU Impaction has been expanding for almost two decades. The driving forces behind this process are a growing and young Latino population and California’s divestment in education. CSU impaction is expanding at a time when CSU leadership is promising steps to close the gap in educational equity among students of color and different socio-economic backgrounds. In addition, demographic studies indicate California’s Latino population is and will continue to be much younger than other groups. The growth in the state’s workforce will increasingly become Latino as well.

Unless the state increases its investment in higher education and promotes greater equity for Latino college students, the growing under-educated Latino workforce will be heavily burdened with supporting entitlements to an ever growing retired population. Some of these entitlements include: Social Security, Medical, Medicare, and government pensions.

The Campaign for College Opportunity has noted the following information on California’s Latino population. Currently, Latinos are 38% of California’s population. However, this group is also 51% of the school age (K thru 12) population. At the same time, the percentage of Latinos who complete their college degrees is only 16% compared to 38% for all of California’s population. An under-educated Latino workforce will be challenged with supporting entitlement programs for the retired while stuck in lower paying blue collar jobs. Visit loftypm.com.

Many of the California State University campuses, particularly in Southern California, are Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI). According to Title V of the 1965 US Higher Education Act, a Hispanic Serving Institution, a college or university, must have a Latino student full time enrollment of 25% or more. Among the larger CSU campuses, that are HSI in Southern California, are: CSU, Los Angeles, CSU Long Beach, CSU, Fullerton, and CSU, Northridge. Among the smaller CSU campuses in Southern California, that are HSI include: CSU, Dominguez Hills, CSU, San Bernardino, CSU San Marcos, and CSU Bakersfield.

CSU, Fullerton as of 2013 had the largest student enrollment in the CSU system at 37,677 full time students. This campus also had the largest enrollment of Mexican American full time students at 10, 479. If other Latino students are included, CSU Fullerton’s total Latino full time student enrollment was: 13,488. CSU, Los Angeles was second in Mexican American student full time enrollment at 9,774. However, while CSU, Northridge had 9,374 Mexican American full time students enrolled in 2013, it also had a total of 5,159 other Latino full time students enrolled for a total of 14,533 in 2013. This is the largest Latino full time student enrollment in the system.

Although increasing graduation rates may allow more students to enroll in their preferred campus, using impaction to increase graduation rates may be problematic. An academic department, that is declared impacted, may modify criteria for students to be admitted as a major in their academic program. Impacted academic departments have increased Grade Point Average (GPA) requirements and SAT and ACT test scores also. In addition, an impacted department can add prerequisite classes for students interested in majoring in the subject matter of their program. Despite the fact that the California Master Plan for Higher Education promises that the top third of the state’s high school graduates may enter a CSU campus of their choice, impaction has changed admission requirements for many prospective students.

California policy makers are considering changing budget allocations to CSU campuses, which have traditionally been enrollment driven, to performance based criteria. If graduation rates are used as the main criteria for judging a school’s performance, then schools that have used impaction to drive away Latino and other students of color will be given more money for their campus. Whereas campuses that have sought out diversity will most likely be given less money. Equity criteria must be a part of the budgetary decisions of the state for the CSU as well as the UC system and community colleges.

Divestment, a driving force for CSU impaction, in California’s higher education system has been occurring for decades. However, between 2007 to 2015, the fluctuations in state support can be clearly seen. The Governor’s Budget Summary for 2015 to 2016 shows that the overall state CSU higher education allocation for 2007-08 was 3,264.3 million dollars. By 2011-12 this allocation was down to 2,418.1 million dollars although in the previous year (2010-2011) the higher education allocation spiked up to 3,009.2 million dollars. State spending on higher education has been slowly moving upward since 2012-2013. The CSU budget for 2015-2016 has moved up to 3,153.6 million dollars which is still under the allocation for 2007. Of course the economy has been sighted as the reason for these fluctuations in higher education spending.

While fluctuations in state higher education spending have occurred, the financing of the CSU system, like the UC system and Community Colleges, has continued to rely on student tuition and fees. In 2007-08 the total CSU revenues from student tuition and fees was: $1,046.6 million dollars. By 2011-12 CSU revenue from student tuition and fees was up to 1, 874.7 million dollars. Student tuition and fees have slowly decreased since the 2011-2012 levels to 1,669.9 million dollars in 2014-15 and is currently up to 1,707.1 million dollars in 2015-16.

State financial aid, like tuition, also increased from 2007 to 2015. In 2007-08 state financial aid dollars were at 129.7 million. In 2014-15, state financial aid increased to 636.4 million dollars and dropped down to 506.70 million dollars in 2015-16. Also the amount of other funds to the CSU has increased since 2007-08. Other funds include state lottery money, and federal funds. The CSU budget has increased since 2007. In 2007-08 the CSU budget was 4,780.7 million dollars. In 2015-16 the CSU budget rose to be 6,009.2 million dollars. This increase has occurred by increasing student tuition and fees, state financial aid and other funds such as lottery money, and federal funds. Meanwhile the state has continued to divest in higher education and the CSU specifically.

While the CSU Enrollment and Management Policy allows for campuses and academic departments to change their admission standards when challenged by student admissions, it also specifies alternatives. The alternatives to impaction may be one way to slow down this process while also allowing the equity gap to close further. Innovation in education may offer some solutions. However, ultimately California’s state policy makers will have to decide whether to invest in higher education while demanding more efficiency and positive outcomes with increased state spending.

An organization that has become an advocate for maintaining promises made by California’s Master Plan for Higher Education to the state’s high school and community college students, is the Campaign for College Opportunity. This group has attempted to make clear the consequences for California’s economy for failing to invest in higher education and failing to close the current equity gap. This group notes: “When one in two children under the age of 18 is Latino, California cannot meet its workforce demand for college educated workers without ensuring more Latinos earn college credentials.” This organization also adds: “The future of our economy and the state will rise or fall on the educational success of Latinos.”

With higher education access and achievement impacting the economic and political status of Latinos in throughout the state, the California LULAC has opted for an aggressive position on CSU impaction. Local LULAC chapters have been meeting with CSU campus presidents on the impaction issue. At the same time, the California LULAC has requested a meeting with CSU Chancellor White. Also, the California LULAC Latino Educational Attainment Committee is discussing the idea of requesting the state LULAC Executive Council to meet with state legislators to discuss CSU impaction and admission policies. California State President Dave Rodriguez said” we will explore all political and legal options to ensure access for students”.

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CALIFORNIA LULAC WILL FOCUS ON NEW VOTING RIGHTS CASES IN 2016

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Camarillo CA – The California League of United Latin American Citizens will partner with the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) and private attorneys in a significant expansion of cases brought forth under the California Voting Rights Act (CVRA) next year, according to California LULAC State President Dave Rodriguez.

Thirty-one cities and thirteen school districts from Redwood City in the north, to Cathedral City in the south have been reviewed and placed on a list for action by a special LULAC task force and the organization’s legal partners. “As we see voting rights challenged in many states, California hopes to utilize current state law to bolster Latino representation” Rodriguez said.

LULAC’s task force leader, Arturo Montez, says the changes will result in the election of dozens of new elected officials as Latino communities change from an at large system to district voting. “this strengthens communities by enhancing neighborhood representation”, Montez said.

The law, enacted in 2001, prohibits the use of an at-large election system in a political subdivision if it impairs the ability of a protected class to elect candidates of its choice or otherwise influence the outcome of an election.

CVRA also states that a voter who is a member of a protected class may bring an action in superior court to enforce the provisions of the CVRA, and, if the voter prevails in the case, he or she may be awarded reasonable litigation costs and attorney’s fees.

CVRA requires a court to implement remedies, including the imposition of district-based elections, that are tailored to remedy a violation of the act. “We negotiate first then litigate if we must” Rodriguez said of LULAC’sapproach to cases.

California LULAC’s action follows a long standing frustration with at-large voting in cities with large Latino populations which lack representation on city councils, school boards, and other political subdivision boards. In many cities, elected leaders live in one section of the city resulting in a lack of representation for neighborhoods and disenfranchisement of Latino residents.

Not All Cities Comply

CVRA is written in a manner that provides those who sue with almost certain favorable outcomes. However, some communities are steadfast in their opposition to change. The city of Palmdale is one such case. City officials spent an estimated $7 million in taxpayer funds only to lose the case on appeal. The LULAC Council in Palmdale was instrumental in the success of this case and is now seeking candidates to run for the newly created district seats.

In northern California, King City has grudgingly discussed converting to districts but only with pressure from a community mobilization led by LULAC members, Assemblyman Luis Alejo, Ana Vargas, and California LULAC State Deputy Director Carlos Ramos.

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Rethinking Higher Education in California

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By Dr. Daniel M. Estrada

Introduction:
California’s 1960 Higher Education Master Plan was visionary. The plan offered a tuition free college education through a three tiered structure of community colleges, California State Universities (CSU) and the University of California (UC) system. Universal access was possible with a high school diploma or equivalent through this three tier structure of universities.

In the 1960s, children, born after World War II (baby boomers), were college age. This group is a bulge in the state’s population pyramid. California’s economy experienced changes, from agriculture and oil extraction as an economic engine, to an information age of high tech industries and professional workers in: medicine, law, accounting, engineering, agriculture and education. This state is uniquely known for its multi-sector knowledge based economy – from Hollywood to the Silicon Valley. College educated workers fuel the economy; industries locate here for this reason. After the 1950s, decades of economic and social changes transformed California’s quality of life and demography.

Today, CSUs award 46% of Bachelors and 32% of Masters degrees in the state. CSUs, now an economic engine, support the state’s economy. CSUs’ 23 campuses employ tens of thousands of workers; as wage earners and consumers they provide tax revenues. ICF International reported that: every state dollar invested in the CSU generated $5.43 more. When calculating CSU graduates’ earnings, this investment rises to $23 for every invested state dollar. Other CSU achievements are a better quality of life and the political development of new arrivals.

California has a large and growing Latino population. Also, Latinos are young in a country facing a population decline. Aging baby boomers are a cause of this decline. A flow of immigrants has prevented a population decline in the US. Immigrants contribute to the economy while supporting Social Security and other entitlements for the state’s retired.

Whether it is first or second generation immigrants, a college education provides socialization for effective participation in state political, economic and social institutions. Meanwhile, the failure of education for these immigrants leads to marginalization from the same institutions. Marginalization of immigrants and migrants is associated with neighborhood crime and gang activity. Another consequence of this marginalization is informal market growth. The informal market includes drugs, and prostitution among other activities. Higher education investment has gains while divestment has economic and social costs. Find best dublin locksmiths.

California’s 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education, a great idea, was not sustainable! Lack of sustainability has hurt the state’s college eligible students. Currently, California’s long term challenge, is how can its public universities be sustainable and affordable for all residents?

“Access Denied”:
A consequence of California’s Higher Education Master Plan’s lack of sustainability, is CSU impaction and the lack of a clear pathway to CSU and UC campuses. CSU impaction occurs when academic departments and/or a CSU campus decides that the demand for a particular major is greater than the resources provided to the academic department or CSU campus. Impaction alternatives are to be attempted before impaction is declared. However, in the CSU system, almost all 23 campuses have impacted undergraduate programs. Six campuses’ academic programs are all impacted. In Southern California three of the six CSU campuses, having all academic programs impacted, include: CSU Long Beach, CSU Fullerton and San Diego State University. Fresno State and Cal. Poly, San Luis Obispo in Central California and San Jose State in Northern California are the other three impacted campuses. Impacted campuses may mean that Latino students must go to a private university if they cannot enter a their preferred program in a state university or UC campus. This puts a greater financial burden on Latino low income and first generation college students. Another option is a California Community College. However, some community colleges cannot accommodate the current flood of students and provide classes that they need for their degrees. The possibility of transferring from a community college to a CSU or UC campus has also become more difficult as a more limited number of available seats and rising tuition at the UC and CSU increase.

CSU impaction alternatives are: satellite campuses, year round classes and internet classes. Satellite campuses and internet classes address the limited CSU space issues. Students also need greater access to classes required for their degrees and graduation requirements. Summer school, and internet classes, help in reducing time required to complete a degree by offering more classes available during an academic year. However, critics of these ideas have warned about hurting academic quality.

CSU administrators claim that impaction is a budget problem. But, impaction is more complicated than just money. The CSU has one of the lowest graduation rates in the US. Therefore, the CSU Chancellor’s Office has developed a plan to address this problem – “The CSU Graduation Initiative, 2025.” Transition and bridge programs are being developed to help low income and first generation college students to attend a CSU campus. Transition programs allow high school students to take college classes concurrently. Community college students, in a transition program, may take upper division classes before transferring to a four year university, in order to increase their chances to graduate in two to three years or less. The graduation initiative’s goal is to improve graduation rates and thereby increase seats available to incoming high school graduates and college transfers.

CSU Economic Impact:
The CSU’s economic impact is described as two types according to the ICF International Report: “Working for California: The Impact of CSU System.” The first impact is CSU related expenditures and the second is created by CSU alumni earnings attributed to their degrees. The first impact is CSU related expenditures for wages and salaries; capital equipment, and supplies. Also there is student spending on meals, textbooks, and housing as well as an array of items related to the mission of the college. In the 2008-09 academic year this totaled $7.96 billion. But, the full economic impact of this $7.96 billion of direct CSU-related expenditures is estimated at $17 billion.

CSU-related expenditures do not describe the entire CSU mission which is to provide an affordable and accessible quality education to hundreds of thousands of Californians. When alumni obtain their degrees, the state’s investment rises to $23 for every $1 spent. CSU degrees support workforce needs of many information based industries. These industries include: agriculture, business and professional services, life science and biomedicine, tourism, engineering and information sciences, media, culture and design. In addition CSUs educate workers in the public and non-profit sector. The public sector workforce includes: educators, social workers, peace officers, and public administrators.

CSUs’ greatest contribution to the state’s workforce is graduating more than half the state’s students in the fields of agriculture (62%), business (54%) and hospitality/tourism (64%). Also, the CSU graduates almost half the students in the state in engineering (45%) and careers in Media, Culture and Design (44%).

Regionally, business firms such as: information technology and electronics are found in specific areas of California. The Bay area’s Silicon Valley is famous as the birthplace of dozens of the world’s premier technology firms and the hub of technology entrepreneurship. Other fields like aerospace engineering in Southern California and telecommunications in San Diego represent high-tech industrial hubs. About 750,000 programmers, engineers, and technicians work in these industries.

Nearly every region in the state, except Los Angeles, has specialties in the agriculture, food and beverages sector. More than 200,000 of California’s agricultural employees provide a significant portion of the nation’s produce and represent the center of American winemaking. Also, life sciences is becoming increasingly significant. California has been a leader in research in pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology. More than 100,000 people are employed in pure life sciences production and research, with an additional 1 million working in healthcare.

Los Angeles is known as one of the world’s largest entertainment centers as well as a nexus for film, fashion, publishing, television and music. Thousands of artists, writers, and musicians are attracted to this area. Los Angeles as well as many other areas of California attracts tourists throughout the world to the state’s beaches, parks, restaurants and hotels. CSUs also provide skilled workers in the hotel and tourism industry also.

Firms specializing in business and professional services are found statewide. But, they are concentrated in Los Angeles, San Diego and the Bay area. These services are important to marketing, advising and improving the state’s businesses through management consulting.

Public sector jobs cannot be overlooked. This area includes both jobs in the government and non-profit organizations. These workers include: educators, law enforcement personnel, social workers and local, county, state and federal administrators as well as administrators of non-profit groups. California’s governance relies on trained policy professionals. As the most populous state in the country and one of the world’s 8th largest economies, California relies on competent policymakers. A majority of these people were educated in the CSU.

UC Economic Impact:
The UC generates about 46.3 billion in economic activity in California and contributes 32.8 billion to the gross state product. Every dollar, that California taxpayers invest in the UC and its students, results in $9.80 in the gross state product and $13.80 in economic output. UC operations and spending by faculty, staff, students and retirees support one out of every 46 jobs in California. By itself the UC employs over 190,000 faculty, researchers, staff and students at 10 campus locations, five health centers, a Department of Energy Laboratory and other facilities throughout the state. The UC also attracts significant spending of out-of-state money into California. This is estimated to be about $8.5 billion in 2009-10. Of course this money magnifies the impact of the UC in California. Five UC health centers account for a relatively high proportion of the UC’s economic impact in the state. The health centers are about 28% of the UC’s total employment and 38% of its contribution to the state economy.

Every dollar cut from the state’s support of the UC would result in a direct loss of about $2.10 in the state’s economic output, $1.30 in employee compensation, and $1.60 in the gross state product. In addition, there are potential or negative secondary impacts associated with a decline in the scale and quality of the UC’s academic and research programs.

California Workforce Needs:
As noted earlier, California’s economy requires highly skilled and educated workers. Reports, from the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), note that economic projections suggest that the state will continue to need greater numbers of highly educated workers. In 2030, if current trends continue, 38% of the state’s jobs will demand at least a bachelor’s degree. However, population and education trends suggest that only 33% of working-age adults in California will have bachelor’s degrees by 2030. The shortfall would be 1.1 million college graduates.

California has a demand for skilled labor that it must act on now. Without an improvement in educational access and outcomes, California’s economy will be less productive, incomes and tax revenue will be lower. Meanwhile more Californians will depend on the social safety net. Statewide goals for higher education must be set to close this gap in the need for skilled labor.

CSU/UC Political & Social Impact:
CSU impact reports acknowledge that many elected state and local representatives are products of their university system. The quality of the state’s political leadership not only affects political institutions but social and economic institutions as well. California faces serious challenges with a changing demography, environmental issues, and keeping pace with a competitive world economy. Quality leadership is critical.

California gets its share of immigrants whether from Asia or Latin America. Many of these immigrants or their children are the first generation to attend a college or university. The CSU has more first generation college students than the UC system. A greater percentage of CSU campuses are Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) than the UC campuses.

Organizations such as LULAC are aware of the critical role higher education plays in the incorporation of the state’s large Latino and Asian populations into the political and social economic institutions of the state. A report from the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute at the University of Southern California notes: “with the largest population of Latinos and Latinas in the nation – from undocumented to descendants of the first Mexican settlers – California is fast becoming a Latinized state.” The Latino population in California has typically been marginalized in educational institutions as noted by low educational attainment rates; and marginalized from political institutions as observed by low voter turnout. This exclusion continues into economic institutions as well, as demonstrated by low Latino family incomes. This is not a healthy scenario for California’s political and economic institutions.

A college education, as emphasized by the CSU and UC impact reports, changes the trajectory of one’s career. Higher incomes, more taxes paid, greater consumption and economic output occur, versus participation in the informal economic sector.

Financing Higher Education:
As discussed earlier, California’s 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education received the attention of educators throughout the world. The three tier university and college systems support an economy that has placed California eighth in the world in economic productivity. Yet in most cases the twenty-three state universities and eight of the ten University of California campuses are without large endowments, making them seriously dependent on state and federal money for their budgets. With the more recent state divestment in higher education, California public universities have become more dependent on tuition increases to balance their budgets.

California’s economy has traditionally been boom or bust. State revenue has had surpluses in some years and deficits in others. This economic experience has forced the CSU and UC Systems to raise tuition on their students yearly and sometimes twice a year. For students in the CSU or UC systems the challenge to graduate in four years has become all the more difficult. With rising tuition, some students have to work which means they have to take fewer classes during a semester. In addition, CSU system efforts to improve graduation rates suffer set backs as a result of tuition hikes when students cannot cover their tuition with financial aid. If a student takes fewer classes and works to cover school expenses the likelihood of graduating in four years becomes impossible.

Another dilemma for state policy-makers is California’s higher education budget comes from the same general fund that pays for prisons and medical care for a growing senior population. New funding sources for higher education are needed. At this time California is the only state that does not have an oil extraction tax. Also, the growing number of mobile devices such as cell phones is another possible source of funds. Whatever the new higher education funding source, reinvestment in this area is necessary for economic growth and innovation.

One might ask, how can California stabilize its higher education budget? Governor Brown has proposed rainy day funds for critical state services but he has not described specifics for higher education. Coincidently, there have been legislative proposals for a higher education trust fund in California as far back as 1993. After the “Great Recession of 2007” higher education financing changed throughout the US. Most states paid at least half the operating budgets of public higher education. After the Great Recession, this amount dropped down to about one third of the operating costs. By the end of the Great Recession, the federal government was paying about a third of public university operating costs through dramatic increases in Pell Grants for tuition. Meanwhile, states were increasing tuition to cover the costs of their divestment in higher education.

States, including California, are slowly increasing support for higher education. But state higher education budgets in no way are approaching the support of pre 2007 levels.

Recommendations:
California is 48th in the country in the percent of college age youth attending a four year university. In addition, the state has fallen seriously behind in granting four year college degrees to meet demands of its economy. Goals need to be established to align institutions of higher education with state workforce needs. To achieve these goals a new master plan for higher education is critical. This plan needs to be sustainable which means policy-makers must rethink strategies to finance public higher education in this state. Several suggestions have already been made in this article such as: creating a higher education trust fund, accelerating the development of CSU and UC campus endowments, and building more partnerships with private and public corporations thereby expanding the resources of public universities. Ultimately, another source of funding must be sought for higher education as an alternative to the current general fund source.

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California LULAC Denounces Two Executive Orders Signed by President Trump

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January 26, 2017- California LULAC strongly opposes President Donald Trump’s signing of two Executive Orders Wednesday. They are named “Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements” and “Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States”.

These Executive Orders authorize plans to proceed with the construction of a wall along the 1,989-mile border between the U.S. and Mexico, which is currently the most frequently cross border in the world.  Also, these actions remove federal funding from cities that provide sanctuary for undocumented immigrants. President Trump’s orders are in violation of the values upheld by the majority of people in California and the nation.

President Trump continues to repeat the same threat that Mexico will pay the estimated $38 billion to construct the wall on our shared border while Mexico continues to refute this assertion. Now, Trump is speaking of shifting the cost of this highly-controversial undertaking to the American taxpayer while adding that Mexico will make, “…payment in a form, perhaps a complicated form.”

California LULAC believes these Executive Orders are ill-conceived and strain relations with Mexico, one of the United States’ most important neighbors.  Also, they create barriers in the path towards more effective bi-national solutions and deny the reality of our closely shared history and prospects for the future.

“The goal of LULAC has always been to build bridges and tear down the walls of injustice, fear and hatred that divide people,” said Dr. Maria Elena Cruz, Acting President of California LULAC. “Further, we have worked tirelessly on behalf of those oppressed because of their color, ethnic origin or socio-economic status rather than attempting to silence them in denial of their constitutionally guaranteed rights upon which our nation stands.”

California LULAC believes the actions of the Trump administration are clear evidence of a willingness to forget our democratic principles as well as the facts supported by unbiased studies which show that immigrants are far less likely to commit crimes than native born Americans, as well as contribute over $1.6 trillion to our economy.

“Unfortunately, xenophobia feeds the emotions of those who are seeking to blame others for their own frustration and failures while exploiting the issue for their own gain,” said Cruz. “We as California LULAC will continue to advocate for the rights of immigrants, defend sanctuary cities, and embrace all Californians against an administration intent on spreading fear in our communities,” she concluded.